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Miramar Toxodont

This femur toksodonta with sticks in her stone-tipped missile weapon was found in the Pliocene formation of Miramar (Argentina).

Miramar Toxodont is a mystery hoofed mammal of South America.

From 1912 to 1914, paleontologist Carlos Ameghino uncovered stone tools in Late Pliocene strata (2 million years old) along a cliff near Miramar, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Among them was a stone arrow or spear point embedded in the femur of a toxodont, a member of a family of large, horse or rhino-like hoofed mammals that persisted in South America until about 10,000 years ago.

Possible explanations

  • Unless humans were in South America nearly 2 million years before the currently accepted date, the artifacts (and presumably the femur) must have been displaced from later strata. A large, grazing toxodont surviving into the Holocene would be a likely food source for early hunters.
  • The arrow was shot into the femur hundreds of thousands of years after the animal died.
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