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As now it is Chinese New Year, I want to write something about Chinese culture. I have held a poll to ask everyone if they wanted more articles about Chinese culture. However, although the answers were yes, there were only 3 people voted. Therefore, I now wrote Chapter 0 to see your reaction about that and if you think if it should be continued.
Chapter 0 will be more interesting to you as it is about Chinese legendary monsters. After reading it, you may use the ideas from this article to make a new Kaiju. Ancient China has a ton of legendary monsters. This article will only focus on some of them.
Before introducing the monsters, I am going to introduce an ancient book called Shan Hai Jing (山海經). Most of the Chinese legendary monsters have been recorded in this book. If you are interested in Chinese legendary monsters, you can find this book for reference. (I do not know if it can be checked out at an American, Canadian, Australian, or British library or bought in a bookstore.) The monsters introduced may or may not come from Shan Hai Jing.
1. Nian (年獸)
Nian was the animal who had the relation with Chinese New Year. It looked like lion and had a single horn. It was a very fierce animal in Chinese legend. At most times, Nian is under the sea. It can beach itself and eat people, much like a shark. But Nian was afraid of the color red, light and noise. Therefore, during the Chinese New Year, people will wear red clothes and let off firecrackers, etc. to expel Nian. So the custom of Chinese New Year came from that.
2. Four auspiciousness
Ancient China has four auspicious monsters who are Quilin (麒麟), Phoenix (鳳凰), Turtle (龜) and Dragon (龍).
Quilin is monster who has a dragon head, horse or deer body, ox tail, and five-color pattern on back and yellow hair on stomach. Quilin can be divided into Qui and Lin. Qui has horn but Lin does not. Quilin can shoot fire from its mouth. Its voice is like a thunder. The Quilin is a good monster that will not hurt other animals and plants. The Quilin in China represents auspiciousness. It only appears when the world is peaceful or there is a good person being born, similar to how Unicorns are only visible to those pure of heart.
Chinese Phoenix in the ancient times was the king of all birds. Its regal position is just lower than the highest, dragon. Male Phoenix is called Feng and female is called Huang. Phoenix has rooster head, swallow jaw, snake neck, turtle back, fish tail and five colors. Just like Quilin, Phoenix represents peace and auspiciousness.
It is a giant turtle on Penglai Island (蓬萊仙島). It understands human language and can predict human's fortune.
Dragon is a monster who has rabbit eyes, deer horns, an ox mouth, a camel head, a clam stomach, tiger palms, eagle claws, fish scales and a snake body. There is another version that is shrimp eyes, deer horns, ox mouth, dog nose, catfish beard, lion hair, eagle claws, fish scales and a snake body. There are four kinds of dragons. There are Jiaolong (蛟龍) who has scales, Yinglong (應龍) who has wings, Qiulong (虯龍) who has horns and Chilong (螭龍) who has no horns. There is another version which is Long (龍) who has two horns, Jiao (蛟) who has one horn, Chi (螭) who has no horns and Zhu (蠋) who has no leg. Dragon can hide itself and summon wind and rain.
3. Chiyou (蚩尤)
Chiyou may be a real person in the earliest China but in legend, he is a monster who has three heads, six arms and eight legs. Chiyou is a leader of nine Li tribe. He has 81 brothers and he is very strong and combative. So he has a name of God of war. At that time, Chiyou was very strong that nearly no one can beat. Finally he was beaten by Huangti (黃帝). One version is that in the Battle of Zhuolu (涿鹿之戰), only Huangti beat Chiyou. Another version is Huangti teamed with Yanti (炎帝) to beat Chiyou. In Shan Hai Jing, Huangti commanded Yinglong to beat Chiyou. After the loss of Chiyou, the history of China started.
4. Four Fierceness
Four Fierceness includes Hundun (渾敦), Taowu (檮杌), Taotie (饕餮) and Qiongqi (窮奇).
Hundun is a giant dog or bear. Human cannot see it or hear it. It may bite his tail and giggle. When Hundun meets saint, it will attack. But when it meets bad guy, it will obey.
Taowu is a monster who has human head, tiger legs and boar teeth.
Taotie is a monster who has human head and goat body and its axilla has eyes. Taotie is a very greedy monster. One version says it is one of the son of Dragon. Another version says it is no head Chiyou.
Qiongqi is a monster who is like a tiger but has wings. Another version says it is like an ox but has hedgehog hair. When Qiongqi meets good person, it will eat the person. But when it meets bad guy, it will hunt an animal and give it to the bad guy as a gift. On the other hand, Qiongqi has another version which is a good monster. For that version, Qiongqi will help people to defeat devil.
5. Pixiu (貔貅)
Pixiu is a monster that has dragon head, horse body and Kirin feet. Its shape is similar to lion. Its hair is grey and white and it can also fly in the sky. Pixiu is fierce that it loves to eat evil creatures and then turn them into wealth. It works in the heaven and prevents evil creatures and diseases attacking the heaven. There are two different kinds of Pixiu. The one who has only one horn is called Bixie (辟邪) and the one who has two horns is called Tianlu (天祿). Another statement is that one who has one horn is male and called Pi (貔), and two horns is female and called Xiu (貅). There is also other wordings said that it can be used for distinguish good and bad Pixiu.
6. Hou (犼)
Hou has another names such as Wangtianhou (望天吼), Chaotianhou (朝天吼) and Denglong (蹬龍). Hou is a monster that has deer horns, camel head, cat ears, shrimp eyes, donkey mouth, lion hair, snake neck, sea serpent stomach, carp scales and eagle forepaws and tiger hind paws. It is the son of the King of Dragon and has a habit of being guardian. Statue of Hou on Huabiao (華表) pillar represents that providence and public sentiments can be transmitted. Another statement is that Hou is one kind of Ba (魃) which is a kind of zombie. There is also other wording said that Hou is the mounts of Guanyin Pusa (觀音菩薩).
7. Shan Hai Jing – Chapter Gods
Well, I have found a lot of photos from Shan Hai Jing published in 1987 on the Internet. Therefore, I will place all the photos here.
7.1 Dijiang (帝江)
Dijiang is a God who lives in *Tianshan (天山). Its shape is similar to a yellow pocket. Its color is red which is similar to a fire. It has six legs and four wings. It has no face but can sing and dance.
7.2 Shenchi (神**[光鬼], [光鬼] is one character but cannot be shown correctly as it's rarely used word...)
Shenchi is a kind of fairy and a kind of Chimei (魑魅). It lives in *Gangshan (剛山). It has human face, monkey body and only one hand and one leg. Its call is similar to someone yawning.
7.3 Gu (鼓)
Gu is the son of Zhuyin (燭陰), who is God of *Zhongshan (鍾山). It has human face and dragon body. It has once conspired with Qinpei (欽䲹) to kill Baojiang (葆江) who is one of the God of sky in Kunlun Mountain (昆侖山). Then it is killed by the Emperor of Sky and then became Junniao (鵕鳥, a kind of bird).
7.4 Yingzhao (英招)
Yingzhao is a God who manages things. *Huaijiangshan (槐江山). It has horse body, human face, tiger stripes and bird wings. It often flies above the four seas and passes on the message from the Emperor of the Sky. Its sound is like a pumping water winch.
7.5 Taifeng (泰逢)
Taifeng is a God who lives in *Heshan (和山) which is rich of jades and manages the not growing vegetation. Its shape is similar to human and it has a tiger tail. It can emit magical light. It can change the Qi of the world. It has another name, the God of Auspicious.
7.6 Jiaochong (驕蟲)
Jiaochong lives in *Pingfengshan (平逢山). It is the leader of all poisonous insects in the world. Its shape is similar to human but has two heads.
7.7 Tuowei (***[單 on top, two 虫 under]圍)
Tuowei is a God that looks like human, but has sheep horns and tiger claws. It lives in *Jiaoshan (驕山). It is usually playing at Suishui (睢水, a river name) and Zhangshui (漳水, another river name). When Tuowei gets out of the water, it will shine.
7.8 Jimeng (計蒙)
Jimeng is a God who lives in *Guangshan (光山) which has many jades on top and many trees in the bottom. It has human body and a dragon head. When it plays at the deep pool in Zhangshui (漳水), there will be stormy weather.
7.9 Xingtian (形天, 形can also be written as刑or邢)
Xingtian is vassal of Yanti (炎帝). It has competed for the throne with the Emperor of Sky and lost. The Emperor of Sky chopped off his head and then buried in *Changyangshan (常羊山). Xingtian uses its nipples as its eyes and its navel as its mouth. Left hand is holding a shield and right hand is holding an axe. It never stops brandishing them.
7.10 Rushou (蓐收)
Rushou is the God of metal in the west. It has white hair and tiger claws. There is a green snake on its left ear. Its right hand is holding a tomahawk. It uses two dragons as its mounts. He is very fierce.
7.11 Xiangliu (相柳)
Xiangliu also has a name of Xiangyao (相繇). It is the minister of Gonggong (共工氏). It has nine heads and snake body. It can eat nine mountains at the same time. When it comes to a place, that place will become a poisonous swamp. It was killed by Dayu (大禹).
7.12 Zhuyin (燭陰)
Zhuyin is also called Zhulong (燭龍). It is the God of *Zhongshan (鍾山). It has human face and snake body. Its body is red in color and 1000 miles long. Its eyes are upright. When it closes its eyes, the world will become at night. If it opens its eyes, the world will become daytime. It needs not eat, sleep and breathe. It just swallow winds and rains.
7.13 Shebi (奢比)
There is doubt that Shebi may be Shelong (奢龍). It has a hyaena body, human face, a human chest, and large ears. There are two green snakes on its ears. Its movements are like wriggling.
7.14 Tianwu (天吳)
Tianwu is the God of Chaoyanggu (朝陽谷, name of a valley). It is also called Shuibo (水伯). Its shape is like a monster and it has eight human heads, eight feet and eight tails. The color of its hair on its back is green and has a yellow tint to it. It is very fierce.
7.15 Yushiqie (雨師妾)
Yushiqie is a mysterious country recorded in Hai Wai Dong Jing (海外東經) in Shan Hai Jing. Yushiqie people have black skin. They are holding two snakes in their hands. Left ear has a green snake and right ear has a red snake in it.
7.16 The minister of Erfu (貳負之臣)
It is one of the minister of Erfu (貳負), who name is Wei (危). As Wei and Erfu have once killed Yayu (窫窳), who is one of the God of Heaven, the Emperor of Sky locked Wei at *Shushushan (疏屬山). Its right foot is locked and its hands are locked by its own hair.
7.17 Leishen / Thunder God (雷神)
Leishen is the God of Thunder. It has dragon body and human head. It always beats its belly and so thunder is generated. It can be human or monster. It is the shape of Thunder God in ancient time.
7.18 Jiufeng (九鳳)
Jiufeng is a God who lives in *Beijitianguishan (北極天櫃山). It has nine heads, human face and bird body. In the record in Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era (太平御覽), Jiufeng is similar to nine-head bird. Nine-head bird is red in color. Its shape looks like a duck. They share the same sound.
7.19 Jiangliang (疆良)
There is doubt that Jiangliang may be the one who is called Qiangliang (強梁). It lives in *Beijitianguishan (北極天櫃山). It has tiger head, human body, four hoofs and long elbows. Its mouth is holding snakes and its hands are also holding snakes. Its look is terrifying.
7.20 Luwu (陸吾)
Luwu is one of the God of Kunlun Mountain (昆侖山). It has tiger body, nine tails, human faces and tiger claws. In Hai Nei Xi Jing (海內西經), it is called Kunlun Kaimingshou (崑崙開明獸). In Zhuangzi (莊子), it is called Jianwu (肩吾).
8. Shan Hai Jing – Chapter Strange World
8.1 Yanhuo Kingdom (厭火國)
It is also called Yanguang Kingdom (厭光國). It is located in south overseas. The people there have black monster body. They can shoot fire from their mouths. Their shape looks like a black ape.
8.2 Yumin Kingdom (羽民國)
Yumin Kingdom is located in southeast overseas. The people there have long head and feathers. They can fly but cannot fly for a long distance. They are oviparous.
8.3 Huantou Kingdom (讙頭國)
It is also called Huandou Kingdom (驩兜國). It is located in south overseas. The people there have human face, beak and wings. They fish for living. Huandou (驩兜) was first a minister of Yao (堯) but has once committed a crime. It was exiled to south overseas then committed suicide. Its offspring then reproduced there.
8.4 Guanxiong Kingdom (貫胸國)
It is also called Chuanxiong Kingdom (穿胸國). The people there have a hole on their breast. They are the offspring of the two ministers of Fangfeng (防風氏). As the two ministers have done something wrong and were afraid of punishment by Dayu (大禹), they penetrate their atrial to attempt suicide. Dayu could not bear so he treated them. Therefore, they have a hole on the breast forever.
8.5 Jiaojing Kingdom (交脛國)
It is located in the east of Guanxiong Kingdom (貫胸國). The people there are crossing their shins. Their height has about four feet. There are also statements saying that they are crossing necks, toes or thighs. For crossing necks, this means two people are crossing their necks together to walk.
8.6 Sanshou Kingdom (三首國)
It is located in the east of Zaochi (鑿齒). The people there have one body and three heads. The three heads themselves have each respiratory tract. If one of the heads has eaten enough, other heads are also eaten enough. Their shape is really strange.
8.7 Changbi Kingdom (長臂國)
It is located in the east of Jiaojiao Kingdom (焦僥國). The people there have a pair of arms which is very long that can touch the ground. When they fish, it is easy to use their hand to catch the fish. Although they have medium build, their sleeves have thirty feet long.
8.8 Qigong Kingdom (奇肱國)
It is located in the north of Yibi Kingdom (一臂國). The people there have one arm only and three eyes. The eyes can be divided by yin and yang (陰陽). When they go out, they always ride a horse called Wen Horse (文馬, white body and red mane). There is another statement saying that they can make flying card which can fly by the winds.
8.9 Changgu Kingdom (長股國)
It is also called Changjiao Kingdom (長腳國) or Changjing Kingdom (長脛國). The people there have long feet and long hair. They often carry Changbi people (長臂人) on back to catch fish in the sea. Changbi people’s arms have thirty feet long. Changgu people’s feet also have thirty feet long.
8.10 Wuqi Kingdom (無啟國)
It is located in the east of Changgu Kingdom (長股國). Wuqi means no offspring. The people there live in caves and eat soil. They are regardless of gender. After they die, their hearts will not rot. After 120 years, they will revive so they do not care about reproduction.
8.11 Yimu Kingdom (一目國)
It is located in the east of *Zhongshan (鍾山). The people there have only one eye. Their surname is Wei (威). They are the sons of Shaohao (少昊). They eat broomcorn for living. The north of corpse of Erfu (貳負) is Ghost Kingdom. There also have Yimu people.
8.12 Rouli Kingdom (柔利國)
It is located in the west of Yimu Kingdom. The people there have only one hand and only one foot. The knee is bending and the foot is on top of the knee. Their offspring do not have any bones. They eat Qi (氣) and fish for living.
8.13 Nie’er Kingdom (聶耳國)
It is located in the east of Wuchang Kingdom (無腸國). The people there have very long ears. As the long ears make them go out inconveniently, they always use their hands to hold their ears. Every single person in Wuchang Kingdom has two giant spotted tigers. They can order the tigers at will.
8.14 Xiaoyang Kingdom (梟陽國)
It is located in the west of Beiqu Kingdom (北朐國). The people there have human face, long lip and black hair which cover on their body, similar to a chimpanzee. When they see people, they will laugh or smile. Their lips can cover their eyes.
8.15 Maomin Kingdom (毛民國)
The people living in Maomin Kingdom have a surname of Yi (依). They eat broomcorn for living. They can order four kinds of wild beasts. Dayu (大禹)’s great-grandson Xiuge (修鞈) has killed Chuoren (綽人). Dayu knows that Chuoren was innocent so he secretly constructed a kingdom for Chuoren which was Maomin Kingdom. Maomin people have a body which has arrowhead-like hair on it.
8.16 Diren Kingdom (氐人國)
It is located in the west of Damu (達木). The people there have human face, fish body and no feet. They are offspring of grandson of Yanti (炎帝) who is called Lingtong (靈憅). They can fly in the sky and walk on the ground.
8.17 Xiaoren Kingdom (小人國)
Xiaoren is also called Junren (菌人) or Jingren (靖人). Xiaoren Kingdom is also called Jiaojiao Kingdom (焦僥國). The people there have the height of three feet. Another statement said that they have one feet and five inches. There are also other statements said that they have only seven inches or just 0.1 inches.
8.18 Yibi Kingdom (一臂國)
It is located in the north of Sanshen Kingdom (三身國). The people there have only one arm, one eye and one nostril. Guo Pu (郭璞) thought Bijian people (比肩人) were people who have only half of a body. Yibi people are the same type of that.
8.19 Sanmian people (三面人)
They are the offspring of Zhuanxu (顓頊). They lives in *Dahuangshan (大荒山). They have human head but three faces on the three sides. They have only one arm. They will not die forever.
8.20 Dingling Kingdom (釘靈國or丁靈國)
The people there have hair under their knees. Their feet are horse hoofs so they can run fast without riding horse.
8.21 Goufeng Kingdom (狗封國)
It is also called Quanfeng Kingdom (犬封國). In legend, Rongwang (戎王) has once revolted. Gaoxin (高辛氏) said that if someone could kill Rongwang, he could marry his daughter. After that, Panhu (盤瓠, its shape is like a dog) killed Rongwang. Then Gaoxin reluctantly gave Panhu fief in the southeast sea of Huiji (會稽) and let it marry his daughter. Their male offspring looks like dogs and their female offspring is beauties.
8.22 Changsheng Kingdom (長生國)
It is located in the east of Chuanxiong Kingdom (穿胸國). The people there are tall and have black skin. The old men there, especially the ones who have over 100 years old, just look like young men. In legend, there are trees which after people eat their fruits, they can have longevity. There is also Chiquan (赤泉, a spring) that when people drink the water inside it, they can keep to be young forever.
8.23 Shenmu Kingdom (深目國)
It is located in the east of Gonggongtai (共工台). The people there have deep eye sockets. They always lift one of their hands and look like greeting.
8.24 Junzi Kingdom (君子國)
It is located in the north of Shebi (奢比). The people there are faultless in form and very polite. They have a sword in their waist. They eat wild beasts for living. Each of them has two spotted tiger to order at will.
8.25 Qizhong Kingdom (跂踵國)
It is located in the east of Juying Kingdom (拘癭國). When the people there walk, their heels will not touch the ground. They use their soles of the feet to walk. There is another statement said that their feet were grown reversely. Their footprints will turn towards north when they walk towards south.
8.26 Kuafu Kingdom (夸父國)
It is located in the east of Nie’er Kingdom (聶耳國). The people there are tall. They usually hold a green snake in their right hands and a yellow snake in their left hands. They are offspring of Kuafu who has raced with the sun.
8.27 Heichi Kingdom (黑齒國)
It is located in the north of Shuhai (豎亥). The people there have black teeth. They eat rice for staple food but use snakes for dishes. They always have a red snake and a green snake with them.
8.28 Juying Kingdom (拘癭國)
It is located in the east of *Yusuojidanshan (禹所積石山). The people there have Sarcoma on their necks. They always use one of their hands to hold their sarcomas.
8.29 Xuangu Kingdom (玄股國)
It is located in the north of Yushiqie (雨師妾). The people there have black thighs. They wear clothes made by fish skins. They eat gulls for food. They usually hold two birds under their arms.
8.30 Sanshen Kingdom (三身國)
There is *Butingshan (不庭山) in Dahuang (大荒). In the mountain, there are people who have three bodies. In legend, they are offspring of Ehuang (娥皇) who is the wife of Shun (舜). They all have the surname of Yao (姚). They eat broomcorn for food. There is another statement said that they have one head, three hands and three bodies.
8.31 Laomin Kingdom (勞民國)
It is located in the north of Maomin Kingdom (毛民國). The people there have black skin. They eat wild fruit and strawberry for food. Inside the kingdom, there is a kind of bird which has two heads.
8.32 Baimin Kingdom (白民國)
It is located in the north of habitat of Longyu (龍魚). The people there have white skin and white hair. In a record from Ming Dynasty (明朝), they do not eat grains but eat white jade powders for food.
9. Shan Hai Jing – Chapter Beasts
9.1 Xingxing (狌狌 or 猩猩)
Xingxing’s shape looks like hairy ape. Its ears are white in color. It can sneek and also walk. If human eats Xingxing’s meat, he or she can walk with vigorous strides.
9.2 Lushu (鹿蜀)
Lushu is a beast which lives in *Chouyangshan (杻陽山). Its shape is like a horse. It has white head, tiger stripes and red tail. Its animal call is like a person who is singing folk song.
9.3 Lei (類)
Lei is a beast which lives in *Danyuanshan (亶爰山). Its shape is like a wild cat and there is hair on its head. It is hermaphrodite that can mate with itself(?). If human eats its meat, it can cure jealousy.
9.4 Boyi (猼訑)
Boyi lives in *Jishan (基山). It looks like goat. It has nine tails and four ears. Its eyes grow on its back. When people wear its skin, those people will not be afraid.
9.5 Jiuweihu / Nine-tailed fox (九尾狐)
Jiuweihu is a beast that lives in *Qingqiushan (青丘山). It looks like fox but has nine tails. Its call is like the crying of a baby. It will eat human but if people eat its meat, they can ward off daemons. Visit its main page at Kitsune.
9.6 Changyou (長右)
Changyou is a beast that lives in *Changyoushan (長右山). Its shape looks like a long-tailed monkey. It has four ears. Its call is like moaning. If it appears in a place, there will be flood.
9.7 Huaguo (猾裹)
Huaguo is an unfavourable beast which lives in *Yaoguangshan (堯光山). If it appears in a place, there will be forced labor. Its shape looks like human. It has mane on its body. It lives in cave. When it is winter, it will hibernate.
9.8 Zhi (彘)
Zhi lives in *Fuyushan (浮玉山). Its shape is like monkey. It has four ears. Its body looks like a leopard. It has ox tail. Its call is like barking. It will eat humans.
9.9 Huan Goat (䍺)
Huan’s shape looks like a goat but it does not have a mouth. It can live without eating food. It lives in *Xunshan (洵山). It is immortal.
9.10 Gudiao (蠱雕)
Gudiao is a beast that lives in *Luwushan (鹿吳山). It looks like an eagle. There is horn on its head. Its call is like the crying of a baby. It can eat human.
9.11 Qianyang (羬羊)
Qianyang is a beast that lives in *Qianlaishan (錢來山). It is as big as a donkey. It has a horse tail and its shape looks like a goat. The grease on its body can lubricate dry skin. The tail has a weight of ten catties. It can be cut and eaten. After cut, the tail will regrow.
9.12 Conglong (蔥聾)
Conglong is a beast that lives in *Fuyushan (符禺山). Its shape looks like a goat. It has red mane. There are people think that it is a kind of wild goat. Nowadays, Xiayang (夏羊, a kind of goat) also has red mane.
9.13 Haozhi (豪彘)
Haozhi is also called Haozhu (豪豬) or Huanzhu (貆豬). Its shape looks like a little pig. It has white hair which is as thick as hairpin. It is black for the tip of the hair.
9.14 Jueru (玃如)
Jueru is also called Yingru (**[犭嬰]如). It is a beast which lives in *Gaotushan (皋塗山). It looks like a deer. It has white tail and horse legs. Its forelimbs look like human hands. It has four horns on its head.
9.15 Lingyang (麢羊or羚羊)
Lingyang is living in *Cuishan (翠山) or *Dacishan (大次山). It is bigger than common goats. It has small horns. It has a habit of hanging the horns in a tree to prevent suffering(?).
9.16 Jufu (舉父)
Jufu lives in *Chongwushan (崇吾山). It looks like female monkey. There are stripes on its arms. It has strength of tiger or leopard. It is good in throwing things. Guo Pu (郭璞) thought it was related to Kuafu (夸父).
9.17 Tulou (土螻)
Tulou lives in Kunlun Mountain (昆侖山). It looks like goat. It has four very sharp horns. If someone is penetrated by the horns, he or she will die immediately. It is a beast which will eat humans.
9.18 Zheng (猙)
Zheng is a beast who lives in *Zhang’eshan (章莪山). It looks like red leopard. It has five tails and one horn. Its call is like beating rocks.
9.19 Tiangou (天狗)
Tiangou lives in *Yinshan (陰山). Its shape looks like wild cat. It has white head. Its call is like meowing. If people feed it, it can prevent evil.
9.20 Aoye (獓**[犭因])
Aoye lives in *Sanweishan (三危山). It looks like an ox. The whole body is white in color. It has four horns. It has hairs over its body like a swampweed. It is a beast which will eat humans.
9.21 Huan Cat (讙)
Huan lives in *Yiwangshan (翼望山). It looks like wild cat. It has one eye and three tails. It has 100 types of sound. Feeding it can prevent evil. Eating its meat can cure jaundice.
9.22 Manman Otter (蠻蠻)
Manman may be a kind of otter. The body looks like mouse. The head looks like soft-shelled turtle. Its call is like barking. It lives in river where is near the source of Luoshui (洛水, a river).
9.23 Bo (駮)
Bo looks like horse. It has white body and black tail. It has a horn on its head. It also has tiger’s teeth and claws. Its call is like a drum. It eats leopards and tigers. After feeding it, it can be used in war.
9.24 Jiao (狡)
Jiao is a beast that lives in *Yushan (玉山). It looks like dog or hyaena. There are leopard grains on its body. The horn on its head looks like ox horns. Its sound is like barking. If it appears in a place, this represents that place is tranquil and peaceful.
9.25 Quanshu (䑏疏)
Quanshu is a beast that lives in *Daishan (帶山). Its shape is like a horse. It has a horn that has cracks on it. Feeding it can prevent hurting by fire.
9.26 Zhujian (諸犍)
Zhujian lives in *Danzhangshan (單張山). It looks like a leopard. It has a long tail, human head, ox ears and only one eye. It usually likes howling. While walking, it will hold its tail in mouth. While sleeping, it will curl its tail.
9.27 Shanhui (山***[犭軍])
Shanhui is a beast that lives in *Yufashan (獄法山). It looks like a dog. It has human face. It is good at throwing things. While seeing a human, it will laugh or smile. Its running speed is as high as wind. If it appears, there will be strong wind.
9.28 Zhuhuai (諸懷)
Zhuhuai is a beast that lives in *Beiyushan (北獄山). It looks like an ox. It has four horns, human eyes and pig ears. Its sound is like tweeting of wild goose. It will eat human.
9.29 Boma (****[馬孛]馬)
There is a place called Qiongze (卭澤, a lake) where water is from the east of Maoshui (旄水, a river). Boma lives near that river. It has ox tail, white body and one horn. Its call is like the shouting of human.
9.30 Paoxiao (狍鴞)
Paoxiao is a beast that lives in *Gouwushan (鉤吾山). It looks like a goat. It has human face but its eyes are grown under its armpits. It also has tiger teeth and human fingernails. Its sound is like crying of baby. It will eat human.
9.31 Huan Antelope (䮝)
Huan looks like antelope. It has four horns, horse tail and chicken feet. It is good at circling dance. Its sound is like calling its name.
9.32 Tianma (天馬)
Tianma looks like white dog. It has a black head and there is a pair of wings on its back. If it sees a human, it will fly away immediately. Its name literally means "Sky Horse". This mythical animal is similar to a Pegasus from Greek mythology.
9.33 Feishu (飛鼠)
Feishu lives in *Tianchishan (天池山). Its shape is like rabbit. It has a mouse head. It uses hairs on its back to fly. Also, its tail can help it to fly.
9.34 Dongdong (䍶䍶)
Dongdong lives in *Taixishan (泰戲山). As its call sounds like “dong-dong”, that's where it gets its name of Dongdong. It looks like a goat. It has a horn and only one eye. Its eye is grown in the back of its head.
9.35 Huan Ox (獂)
Huan is a beast that lives in *Qianshan (乾山). It looks like an ox. It only has three legs. Two are in the front and one is in the back. As its call is like “huan-huan”, it gets its name.
9.36 Pi (羆)
Pi is also called Pijiu (羆九). It lives in *Lunshan (倫山). It looks like an elk. It is strange that its anus is grown above its tail.
9.37 Zongzong (*****[犭從][犭從])
Zongzong is also called Congcong (從從). It is a beast that lives in *Xunzhuangshan (栒狀山). It looks like a dog. It has six legs. Its call sounds like “cong-cong”.
9.38 Longzhi (蠪姪)
Longzhi is a beast that lives in *Fulishan (鳧麗山). It looks like a fox. It has nine tails, nine heads and tiger claws. Its sound is like crying of baby. It will eat human. This mythical animal is similar to the Kitsune from Japanese folklore.
9.39 Zhunou (朱獳)
Zhunou looks like a fox. Its back has a fish fin on it. It lives in *Gengshan (耿山). If it appears in a place, there will be mass hysteria.
9.40 Bibi (獙獙)
Bibi is a fierce beast that will bring serious drought. It lives in *Gufengshan (姑逢山). It looks like fox with wings. Its call is like that of a wild goose.
9.41 Mafu (馬腹)
Mafu has a human face and tiger body. It lives in *Manqushan (蔓渠山). Its call is like that of a crying of a baby. It feeds on humans. If human eats its meat, he or she can prevent war and will not be afraid of the sound of thunder.
9.42 Xie (**[犭吉頁])
Xie may possibly be also known as Qinggou (青狗) "Blue dog". It lives in *Lishan (釐山). It looks like a dog but it has scales. There are bristles which are similar to pig manes between its scales.
9.43 Fei (蜚)
Fei lives in *Taishan (太山). It looks like an ox. It has only one eye and a snake tail. The head is white in color. If it walks near water, water will dry up. If it walks through grasses, grasses will be withered. If it appears, there will be pestilence.
9.44 Youyou (峳峳)
Youyou looks like horse but has four horns. It has goat eyes and ox tail. Its call is like that of a dog barking. If it appears in a place, the people of that town will receive great knowlege.
9.45 Baifeng (拜封)
Baifeng is also called Pingpeng (屏蓬) or Biefeng (鼈封). It looks like pig. Its body is black in color. It has heads in the front and at the back. Someone thinks that it is hermaphroditic. For its own wiki page, visit Bingfeng.
9.46 Zhuwu (騶吾)
Zhuwu is also called Zhuyu (騶虞). It is a rare beast which lives in Lin Kingdom (林氏國). It looks like a tiger. It has five colors on top of it. Its tail is longer than its body. It can travel thousands of miles a day.
9.47 Chenghuang (乘黃)
Chenghuang looks like a fox. Its back has two horns. In legend, if someone rides on it, he or she can live to two thousand years old. There is another report that it has dragon wings and horse body. As Huangti (黃帝) has rid on it, he became an immortal.
9.48 Kui (夔)
Kui looks like an ox. It lives in *Liuboshan (流波山) in the East China Sea. Its body is dark green in color. It has no horn and only one leg. If it enters or exits sea water, there will be storms. Its body will emit light like the sun or the moon. Its sound is like thunder.
9.49 Chuti (䟣踢)
Chuti lives outside South China Sea, in the west of Chishui (赤水) and the east of Liusha (流沙). It has two heads on the left and the right of its body. It may also be known as Shudang (述蕩) which its meat is tasty. This is similar to the Greek myth of Hellhounds.
9.50 Maoma (旄馬)
Maoma may be also known as Haoma (豪馬). It looks like a horse but there are hairs on the joints of its legs. It lives in the northwest which has Bashe (巴蛇) and also the south of *Gaoshan (高山).
9.51 Shuangshuang (雙雙)
Shuangshuang is a beast which is combined by three Qingshou (青獸). It lives in the same place of Chuti. Shuang (雙) in Chinese means double but as Shuangshuang is combined by three Qingshou, people are confused that why it is called Shuangshuang.
9.52 Zhuyan (朱厭)
Zhuyan lives in *Xiaocishan (小次山). It looks like monkey. It has a white head and red legs. If it appears in a place, there will be war.
10. Shan Hai Jing – Avian Chapter
10.1 Changfu (***[尚鳥]****[付鳥])
Changfu looks like chicken. It has three heads, six eyes, six legs and three wings. If human eats its meat, he or she will become excited and have insomnia, similar to the effects of caffeine.
10.2 Zhu (鴸)
Zhu looks like a sparrow hawk. Its legs are like human hands. As its call is like that female quail, it gets its name from this. If it appears in a place, a smart person is being exiled.
10.3 Quru (瞿如)
Quru looks like Chinese Pond Heron. It has a white head, human face and three legs. Its call is like calling its name.
10.4 Yu (*****[禺鳥])
Yu looks like owl. It has human face, a pair of ears and four eyes. Its call is like calling its name. If it appears, there will be serious drought.
10.5 Tuofei (橐蜚)
Tuofei looks like owl. It has human face and only one leg. It appears in winter and hibernates in summer. If a person wears its feather on his or her body, he or she will not be afraid of thunder.
10.6 Lei Magpie (鸓)
Lei looks like a magpie. Its body is red and black in color. It has two heads and four legs. It lives in *Cuishan (翠山). If a person feeds it, he or she can prevent serious disaster.
10.7 Fuxi (鳧徯)
Fuxi lives in *Lutaishan (鹿台山). It looks like a rooster, but has a human face. Its call is like calling its name. If it appears, there will be war. Its appearance is similar to a Cockatrice.
10.8 Manman Duck (蠻蠻)
Manman looks like wild duck. It has only one eye and one wing. It only flies when two Manman fuse together, and so it gets its name. It is also called Biyiniao (比翼鳥). If it appears, there will be flood.
10.9 Chi (䲭)
Chi looks like Luoniao (**[樂鳥]鳥) which has black spots and red neck. It has only one head but has three bodies(?). It lives in *Sanweishan (三危山).
10.10 Renmianxiao (人面鴞)
Renmiaoxiao looks like an owl. It has human face, monkey body and dog tail. It is a fierce bird. If it appears, there will be serious drought.
10.11 Bifang (畢方)
Bifang looks like a white crane. It has only one leg, red spots, green body and white beak. Its call is like calling its name. If it appears, there will be an accidental fire.
10.12 Qitu (鵸䳜)
Qitu looks like crow. It has three heads and six tails. It likes to make ‘hee hee’ sound. If a person eats its meat, he or she will not sleepwalk and can avoid attacks by daemons.
10.13 Songsi (竦斯)
Songsi looks like female pheasant but has human face. It enjoys the company of people and if it sees one, it will jump happily. Its call is like calling its name.
10.14 Xiaoniao (囂鳥)
Xiaoniao looks like Kuafu (夸父) which has monkey body. It has four wings, only one eye and a dog tail. Its sound is like magpie. If a person eats its meat, his or her stomach and bowel ailments can be cured.
10.15 Yuniao (寓鳥)
Yuniao lives in *Guoshan (虢山). It looks like mouse but has wings. Its sound is like goat. It can be used to stop war. It may be in the family chiroptera.
10.16 Panmao (***[top般bottom鳥]****[冒鳥])
Panmao lives in *Beixiaoshan (北囂山). It looks like crow. It has human face. It is nocturnal and will fly at night. If a person eats its meat, he or she will feel revitalised.
10.17 Suanyu (酸與)
Suanyu is a bird that looks like snake. It has four wings, six eyes and three legs. Its call is like calling its name. If it appears in a place, the people there will fear themselves.
10.18 Feiniao (吠鳥)
Feiniao looks like an owl. It has three eyes and has two ears. Its sound is like sound of a deer. If a person eats its meat, his or her rheumatism can be cured.
10.19 Fen (䴅)
Fen looks like magpie. It has a white body, a red tail and six legs. It is alert and resourceful. It can sense any sign of trouble.
10.20 Cishu (䖪鼠)
Cishu is an inauspicious bird. If it appears in a place, there will be serious drought. It lives in *Xunzhuangshan (栒狀山). It looks like a chicken. There is rat fur on its body.
10.21 Chuniao (*****[鳥蜀]鳥)
Chuniao has only one body but has six heads. Its body is yellow in color and its legs are red in color. It may be similar to Shuniao (樹鳥) which also has six heads.
10.22 Lingyao (鴒䳩)
Lingyao looks like pheasant. It has a long tail. Its body is as red as fire but its beak is blue in color. It lives in Guangu (雚谷). If a person eats its meat, he or she will have nightmares. It seems to be in the Nyctibiids family.
10.23 Qizhong (跂踵)
Qizhong looks like an owl. It has only one leg and a pig tail. If it appears in a place, there will be serious plague. It is the omen of befalling disaster. It lives in *Fuzhoushan (復州山).
10.24 Zhongmingniao (重明鳥)
Zhongmingniao is also called Shuangjingniao (雙睛鳥). Its eyes have double pupils. It looks like a chicken. Its call is more like that of a phoenix. Its feathers often fall off. It only uses muscles to fly. It can fight fierce beasts and defeat daemons.
11. Shan Hai Jing – Aquatic Chapter
11.1 Yinglong (應龍)
Yinglong is a dragon which lives in Xionglituqiu (凶犂土丘). It has a pair of wings. It can summon storms. It has helped Huangti (黃帝) to kill Chiyou (蚩尤) and Kuafu (夸父). Since it used all its extraordinary power, it cannot go back to the heaven. If there are a lot of droughts, people will simulate its shape (?) to pray for rain and it always comes true.
11.2 Xuangui (旋龜)
Xuangui is a turtle that its body has black and red on it. It has a bird head and a pointy tail like a viper. Its call is like cutting wood. If a person wears it, he or she will not have hearing loss and his or her bunyons can be cured.
11.3 Lingyu (陵魚)
Lingyu is also called Renyu (人魚) or Longyu (龍魚). It has fish body, human face, human hands and human legs. It lives in undersea. Qu Yuan said that it was Rugen in his poem Tianwen. Later, other people thought it was the beautiful “mermaid”.
11.4 Luyu (鯥魚)
Luyu looks like cow and has a snake tail. Its wings are in its armpits. Its call is like a yak. It lives on the hillside. It is active in summer and hibernates in winter. If people eat it, they can prevent paralysis and swelling.
11.5 Chiru (赤鱬)
Chiru looks like fish but has human head. Its call is like that a mandarin duck. If people eat it, they can prevent or cure scabies.
11.6 Feiwei (肥**[虫遺])
Feiwei looks like a snake. It has six feet and four wings. If it appears in a place, that place will have drought. It lives in *Dahuashan (大華山).
11.7 Wenyaoyu (文鰩魚)
Wenyaoyu looks like a carp. It has fish body, bird wings, white head and red beak. It has pale stripes on its body. It usually flies in the sky with other Wenyaoyu at night. It call is like that of a phoenix. Its meat tastes sour and sweet. If people eat it, their dementia can be cured. If people see it, it will be the sign of bumper harvest(?).
11.8 Weiyu (***[魚胃]魚)
Weiyu looks like snake that has a narrow and long body. It has four legs and is a pescavore.
11.9 Bangyu (蚌魚)
Bangyu looks like turtle. It has two feet and fish tail. Its call is like that of a goat. It lives in the place between Yushui (禺水) and Zhaoshui (招水).
11.10 Luoyu (蠃魚)
Luoyu has fish body but has bird wings. Its call is like that of a mandarin duck. If it appears in a place, that place will have serious flood.
11.11 Ranyiyu (冉遺魚)
Ranyiyu has fish body and snake brain. Its eyes look like horse ears. It also has six feet. If people eat it, they can prevent having nightmare at night and also avoid evils.
11.12 Heluoyu (何羅魚)
Heluoyu has only one head but ten bodies. Its call is like a dog barking. Rumour has it, that it is also able to transform into a bird called Xiujiu (休舊). If people eat its meat, they can cure paralysis and swelling.
11.13 Rubiyu (****[top如bottom魚]魮魚)
Rubiyu looks like cauldron. It has bird head, fish fins and tail. Its call is like a beating chime stone. Rumors said that it is the sound when it generates pearl and jade. It lives in Lanshui (濫水).
11.14 Tiaoyu (鯈魚)
Tiaoyu looks like chicken. Red furs cover on the whole body. It has three tails, six feet and four eyes. Its call is like a magpie. If people eat its meat, it can cure depression.
11.15 Xixiyu (鰼鰼魚)
Xixiyu looks like magpie. It has ten wings. All scutes are on the tips of feathers. Its sound is also like a magpie. If people feed them, they can prevent fire disaster. If they eat it, they can prevent jaundice.
11.16 Zhangshe (長蛇)
Zhangshe lives in *Daxianshan (大咸山). The fur on it looks like that from pigs. Its call is like people knocking a clapper. In ancient times, it is monster that will hurt people.
11.17 Zaoyu (䲃魚)
Zaoyu looks like a carp. It has chicken feet. If people eat it, they can cure skin tags.
11.18 Yiyu (鮨魚)
Yiyu has fish body and dog brain. Its call is like the crying of a baby. If people eat its meat, they can cure epilepsy. Rumour has it that it's actually a fur seal nowadays.
11.19 Renyu (人魚)
Renyu looks like salamander. It has four feet. Its call is like the crying of a baby. If people eat its meat, they can cure dementia. People later learned that it is actually just a salamander.
11.20 Tiaoyong (䖺䗤)
Tiaoyong looks like snake. It has fish fins. When it comes out from water, its body will sparkle. If it appears in rural town, there will be a serious drought.
11.21 Feiyi (肥遺)
Feiyi has one head but two snake bodies. It lives in *Hunxishan (渾夕山). If it appears, serious drought will be all over the world.
11.22 Gegeyu (鮯鮯魚)
Gegeyu looks like carp but has six feet and bird tail. Its call is like saying “ha ha”. It lives in billowy deep swamp.
11.23 Zhubieyu (珠蟞魚)
Zhubieyu looks like a lobe of lung. It has four eyes and six feet. There are beads sticking on its feet. Its meat tastes sour and sweet. If people eat it, they can prevent plague.
11.24 Mingshe (鳴蛇)
Mingshe looks like snake. It has four wings. Its call is like beating rock. If it appears in a place, there will be serious drought.
11.25 Baoyu (薄魚)
Baoyu looks like northern snakehead. It has only one eye. Its call is like people vomiting. If it appears, worldwide will be serious drought.
11.26 Huayu (䱻魚)
Huayu has fish body but also has a pair of bird wings. If it comes out from water, its body will gleam. Its sound is like mandarin duck. If it appears, worldwide will be serious drought.
11.27 Huashe (化蛇)
Huashe has human face, jackal body (?) and bird wings. It moves like snake. Its call is like human bawling. If it appears in rural town, there will be serious flooding.
11.28 Feiyu (飛魚)
Feiyu looks like pig. It has red spots, little wings at the back and fish tail. If people eat it, they will no longer have astraphobia and they can prevent turmoil caused by war.
11.29 Sanzugui (三足龜)
Sanzugui is a turtle that only has three legs (two at the front and one at the back). If people eat it, they can prevent serious diseases and, cure paralysis and swelling. This mythical animal is similar to Jin Chan,
11.30 Haoyu (豪魚)
Haoyu looks like tuna. It has red mouth, red tail and red feathers. If people eat its meat, it can cure ringworm.
11.31 Bashe (巴蛇)
Bashe is a giant snake that can swallow an elephant easily. If it eats an elephant, it will only spit out the bones after three years. If a virtuous person eats its meat, he/she can be cured heart attack and gastrointestinal diseases. On its body, there are four kinds of colors, including green, red, yellow and black.
11.32 Yongyongyu (鱅鱅魚)
Yongyongyu looks like yak. Its call is like a pig's oink. Rumour has it that it is a kind of thornfish. If people peel off its skin and hang it, when it is high tide, the hair on the skin will stand. When it is low tide, the hairs will be flattened.
Chapter 0 ended!